Lawn Sprinkler System Design

When it comes to designing a sprinkler system, there a lot of things to consider. First the soil type. For example a sandy or loam soil will drain much more quickly than a clay type of soil. Then the climate is a big factor, in Dallas Texas the summers are very dry and the rainfall low, so that must be taken into account. For example around a house foundation, if the soil around the foundation dries out too much, it can put extreme stress on the house foundation, and they could possibly crack, so it is important to have some regular watering close to the walls of the house.

sprinkler heads

Other important design factors include the type of plants in the backyard. A large area of lawn will need more regular watering than a planting of hardy natural foliage, which may be adapted to use less water than grass. If there are paths going through the garden, these must be accounted for in the design, as you don’t want to be watering a concrete path, as the water will just run off and pool where you don’t want it to. Not to mention water loss due to evaporation over a large hot area of concrete. Also important are any major plants such as trees, which not only soak up a lot of water, but will also block the travel of water from sprinkler heads, both pop up and impact sprinklers.

One of the less obvious design variables is the amount of water pressure. If you are using city water, be aware that during summer watering restrictions many people will be watering their yards at the same time, and this may cause your water pressure to drop, which reduced the distance that a sprinkler head can reach.

So with these factors in mind, draw out the sprinkler design on graph paper, which is an easy way to see where the sprinkler heads need to be placed to best water the larger grassier areas, and avoid any obstacles such as trees or other fixed structures. Draw each sprinkler head with the chosen sprinkler pattern (these can be full, half or quarter circles, end strip or side strip spray patterns)on the paper to get an idea of where to position them. Ensure that each sprinkler head has an overlap with adjacent heads, both for best coverage, and also to account for water pressure drops.

Finally divide up the sprinkler heads into zones. Each sprinkler zone is typically controlled by an electric sprinkler valve, operated by a central controller. Then your sprinkler design is ready for laying out the underground sprinkler pipes.

Cutting Copper and Stainless Steel Pipes

Sometimes at home, you may need to cut a copper pipe to make a plumbing repair. It is best not to cut pipe with a hacksaw for a couple of reasons – first it is difficult to get an exactly straight cut across the pipe (as the cutting blade will wobble slightly and also not be exactly perpendicular to the pipe), and also because small filings and dust from the saw blade may go inside the pipe and do some internal damage to attached fixtures. Having a straight cut is important to join pipes together to minimise the gaps for possible leaks.

The recommended way of cutting a pipe is with a pipe cutter or tube cutter, and is quite simple as long as you have the right size cutter. Some cutters are fixed in size according to the pipe external diameter, and some are adjustable to fit a range of pipe sizes. Normally the pipe is held with a monkey wrench and the pipe cutter snapped around the pipe at the point to make the cut. The cutter will have an arrow which shows the direction of rotation to turn the cutter. Keep turning the cutter for a number of rotations and gradually tighten the cutting blade until the pipe separates.

Finally a de-burring tool, which has small blades on the inside and outside, is normally used to take off the burrs left on the inside and outside edges of the cut pipe. This ensures a good straight clean cut pipe ready for joining.
Stainless steel pipes can be cut in a similar way using a tube cutter. However stainless steel is much harder than copper, and it is important to keep the tube cutter blade in the same position or in the same groove, especially when starting the cut. Lots of turns is the key to a smooth cut.

Kitchen remodel

Planning a kitchen remodel

If you want to invest in your home or just make it a nicer place to stay for your family, there are some essential areas you normally do first, before remodelling the kitchen. However, this can be a major project, so you’ll have to plan very well.


Whether you want a contemporary finish and elegant look or if you want a basic kitchen setting, you need to ensure that the final result has both style and functionality. To make sure you get the right balance, you should think first about the type of items you need and how to best use the space available taking into account the diverse range of appliances out there to choose from.  Perhaps the best way to start planning is to consider exactly the use you give to each area. You might have a small kitchen where food is prepared only, alternatively you may have someone who wants to use it as a dining room or you may have in mind something else.


The eventual use will greatly influence the choice of countertops, cabinets and dishwasher. If you see it as a strictly functional, you must be pleased to find these items at a reasonable price, but if instead you will spend many hours a day there, style will be an important determining factor in your decisions.


For a country kitchen style, you will look probably traditional wooden units and a Belfast sink, but for a contemporary finish and elegant granite and metal can be used to fit what you have in mind. An important aspect to keep in mind when choosing your units or drawers is the finishing touches that can make a difference in the way they look. For example there are some low-cost, simple designs that can be transformed by choosing appropriate handles and locks – something that could help out with the budget. It is also important to note that the main objective of the compartments of the kitchen should be more practical than decorative, so you have to think carefully if your favorite models don’t have  the amount of storage space you require. Otherwise, make sure to choose the option of a folding unit – as a basket to slide out of a cupboard, attached horizontally to the door or corner – can help make them more useful.


Another aspect that you have to decide is the type of sink you want. Previously it was just a matter of how large stainless steel bowl and drainer choose to, but it’s different now. Now you can select a model of single or double bowl, ceramic or metal, with organizers of side or a kitchen sink. Many available styles can make a real difference to the final appearance of the place.

It is important to select the dishwasher before starting to adapt compartments, making it necessary that you make sure to find your favorite style in the right size for the space you have. For the same reason, you also need to be sure to select your appliances and utensils before starting work on the remodeling, as it can take some time because of the enormous variety that is part of today’s modern kitchen.

Different Types of Hammers

A hammer is a useful tool, today I will talk about the classification that describes the different types as there are many different hammer shape, sizes and weight. The different styles reflect different uses. Tools for home improvement are important as industry research shows it is a growing industry – see Even if we talk about everyday home use, the average person only needs one or two types.

The hammerhead shape has not changed much in recent years, although some modern materials now used both in the head and handle. Wood is traditionally fixed through a hole in the head, allowing the handle to be easily replaced if necessary. Today modern hammers use modern materials and the handles are often built with a way to include a shock absorber to make them easier to use.  Hammers popular for work are generally available with a wooden handle (often walnut), fiberglass or steel shank with or without rubber grip. The most popular weights are 455-680g (16-24 oz).

The claw is normally curved, and incorporates a ‘V’ cut which is very useful to remove wooden nails. The claw can be used as leverage but be careful (especially with cheaper models) as the applied force can easily weaken the bond between the handle and the head. Ball Pein hammers are normally used by engineers, the PEIN in this case, is generally rounded and is used to form metal studs and the closure. Ball pein hammers are available from 55 to 1100 (4 ounces to 2 pounds), 110 – 165 g (8 oz 12 oz) are best suited for general use. The handles are normally of wood, usually ash or walnut.

Curved and straight Pein,  again, mainly used to form metal, the PEIN can be at right angles to the handle or in parallel with it. The PEIN hammer is often used for starting nails and tacks. The handles are usually made of wood, usually Ash. 

Pein Hammer Cross Pin A lighter version of the Cross and Straight Pein Hammer, ideal for light carpentry and cabinet work. Weight 55 g (4 oz).
Maza, sometimes called a lump hammer has a double-faced head, and is useful for light demolition work, driving steel chisels and masonry nails. Since it is likely that chips or splinters will fly out due to the force of this hammer, gloves and safety glasses are recommended for this work. Weight 1135g (2 1/2 pounds) best suited to domestic work. The handles are usually made of wood, usually Hickory, or synthetic resin.

Home Remodeling – Woodworking Machinery

Since the beginning of time men have worked with wood for projects in the home and over time tools have served many different functions. Really the only thing that has changed is the tools they use for their projects. In fact, the basic concepts of the drilling, sawing, and the assembly remain unchanged through time. It’s just the speed and accuracy with which they can do what has changed.

The three most important pieces of woodworking machinery
If only you could fill your workshop with three pieces of machinery, what would you choose? Here are some reasons why these three pieces of equipment  make a complete workshop.
1. Circular or table saw: This can be a handheld or table saw. A table saw offers greater versatility, as it can be tilted for miter cuts and allows templates to be used for better accuracy in cutting long lengths of joints. A hand saw can make straight or curved cuts. Even non-wood materials, such as vinyl siding, can be cut with a saw with interchangeable blades.
2. Router with box: A router can cut smarter and more professional looking woodworking projects. The table below the router only makes the job easier. An adjustable edger keeps the wood in place as it cuts. An adjustable table allows you to work at a height intricate detail that gives more control.
3. Jigsaw: When projects are not limited to wood moldings and floors of a jigsaw allows all projects to be developed both smaller and more detailed. You can make toys, decorations, signs or carve intricate fireplace shelves with a jigsaw.

Of course there are dozens of pieces of woodworking machinery and the basic tools workers need for serious woodwork. Usually rookie home improvement begins with the tools they need for their first project and then build from there. In trying to decide what is a good project to tackle first and what tools are needed to go with it is not always easy. One of the easiest and most affordable is the installation of wood trim. Crown molding is cheap and requires learning to make diagonal cuts. There are parts of the corners on the market that make the job easier and machinery needed is only a saw base. An air compressor that has a finish nailer hydraulic attachment is also another great piece of machinery for installing wood moldings or floor.

Tradesmens’ Timeless Tools
There are hand tools that are timeless and are still using the same today as they were centuries ago. With the chisel, for example, you can create a single piece of wood into a masterpiece. A good set of chisels can still create the details of a router with an accuracy based on the skill of the craftsman.
A hand square or a set of tables allow exact square corners and edges. They are the first step in the old carpenter’s adage, “measure twice and cut once.” Squares make sure everything is correct before making any permanent court.

Combining the best of old and new is very likely to create a workshop for woodworking tools and machines that work for you. You will soon develop a preference for how the tools works with one another and you will quickly grow your equipment inventory to reflect the next big project on your list.

For more information see

Tips and Tricks For Wirral Carpet Cleaning

Over the years in the carpet cleaning industry we have seen a large number of ‘wonder’ products advertised to work miracles on your rug or carpet. On television and in local markets, highly-effective cleaners are touted, If you want a carpet as good as new, all you have to do is buy this product or that product. The trouble is that wonder products usually don’t work. Here are the tips and tricks that do.

It always happens, something goes wrong with the family around the house – maybe a small child drops a drink, or somebody knocks over a glass of red wine (have you ever noticed that white wine is never spilled?).  For something like a red wine spill, you need to act fast to prevent a permanent stain , what you don’t want to do is to spread the stain and make it worse.

stain cleaning

Cleaning a carpet stain

One tip is to quickly sprinkle some salt over the spill, the salt is absorbent and will soak up the bulk of the wine, making it easier to remove. Cover the stain with a dry absorbent cloth to soak the stain into the cloth.

Our second tip – work from the edge of a stain towards the center.  In this way you can reduce the area of the stain rather than spreading it out. However make sure you don’t scrub too hard, as friction can damage an expensive carpet. For emergencies, if you notice a stain on the carpet that hasn’t dried in yet, you can use mineral water to help flush away the stain. The carbonic acid and natural ingredients of mineral water can assist in getting the spilled drink out of the carpet.

Steam cleaners are the best way to get a thorough clean, as used by Wirral carpet cleaning professionals. They are very effective at removing dirt and stains from a carpet, and also due to the heat, make the carpet more hygienic, as well as fresh and clean.

After Remodeling Your Kitchen – Redecorate

Today, kitchens are characterized primarily by merging aesthetics and modern forms, with the most practical and necessary items as a priority. And, never forget that with all ideas for decorating kitchens, the bottom line is that the outcome has to be practical as well as stylish.

The kitchen can have many different functions, depending on the person or people who use it. The needs of a bachelor with little time to cook are quite different from those of a large family with many members, in which it is normal that the kitchen is in just about continuous operation.

Therefore, one of the most important considerations when looking for ideas to decorate your kitchen is to have clearly defined functionality and the need to have it perform the cooking that you require.
Do I have time to cook? Do I need a washer and dryer? Do I buy groceries every month or do I like to buy a few fresh items each day? These are some of the questions we must ask ourselves before actually starting decorating the kitchen, as the answers will change the design significantly, before decorating it. Depending on your needs, we will have completely different kitchen designs for the same space.

Obviously, we should not hesitate to consult professional advice when looking for kitchen design and decoration. They are specialists who will help. The initial planning study is perhaps the main need, but still there are certain aspects that designers know about and will make the outcome and the resulting kitchen both is very functional and also cozy:

• The work area should be ready in three sections, three distinct areas: cooking, cleaning and drying. These three sections must be close together to operate in a coherent manner.
• Also, if the water pipes are not require to be located in a specific place, then the sink should be placed near an area where you get natural light.
• Circulation is very important in a kitchen.  Don’t forget  that the doors take up space when moving around the kitchen: the oven, the refrigerator, the microwave. The space we occupy when we are in front of the sink also may hinder the passage of other kitchen users. Think of this when making the layout. 

When you are decorating after remodeling, it’s not just about having all the comforts of home appliances, but your family also needs to move around the kitchen.

Cost of building a house

In assessing the cost of building a new home , many people use the square meter as a basis for comparison.

Let’s see what we mean when we talk about square meters (sq m or m²).

That of square meters, is a method to compare the approximate cost of construction of two or more similar homes in different parts of the country and even houses with different characteristics. But the method of square meters is not reliable to determine how much it will cost you a property based on a particular design.

Based on a project with some specific questions, you can get a rough idea of costs. This is a start, but for a custom home of 100 square meters, for which we had a budget of $ 3,500.00 / sqm, and a final cost of $ 350,000.00 is not difficult to get to spend $ 400 or even 450 thousand and This may depend on several factors.

With a bit of research, the method of square feet can be a useful tool to get an idea of the price of a football field, nothing più.Dopo doing a search on the likely construction costs in your area, remember to add the cost of land, which is not negligible.

DESIGN, SIZE AND MATERIALS Many parameters affect the cost of building a house, but there are three main dimensions , complexity and level of finish . The effect of size on the cost of construction is evident, bigger houses cost more. But it is not as simple as it may appear.

Significantly more important than the size of the place, the site where you are going to build.

The ” cost per square foot “of a house varies greatly even from one room to another. The rooms like the bathroom and kitchen, which are full of plants “hydro-thermo-sanitary” will cost more rooms “empty.” Even the type of finish greatly affect the final cost: floors made with simple single-fired tiles will cost much less than those in marble or other more expensive materials.

COMPLEXITY OF THE PROJECT   A simple form, maintains low construction costs.

The effect of the complexity of a house on construction cost is often misunderstood, and it’s one of the sources of unpleasant surprises for many buyers.

Simply put, a house is complicated more expensive to build a simple house. What makes complicated the construction of a house? Mainly is the shape of the house, the ratio of the amount of the roof and the amount of foundation with the rest of the construction.

Consider two typical models of construction: the first is a colonial house in rectangular shape with two floors and the second a typical French farmhouse, with a master bedroom suite on the first floor. Both houses are 1,000 square meters, and both have the same level of finish.

The colonial house is the image of simplicity, both plans have exactly the same dimensions and are stacked one above the other directly. So, while the house is 1,000 square feet, the foundation and the roof are only 500 square feet (I’m ignoring the garage for this example). It ‘efficient and easy to build.


The French construction is the same size, but is less efficient, with the master bedroom suite moved from the upper to the lower surface area of the roof and the foundation increase of about 500 square feet – but the overall size of the house remains the same: 1,000 square meters. A greater surface area of the roof and foundations contain the same area, more and more concrete timber equals higher costs.

The colonial houses have simple roof “hut” with two slopes sloping. In the simplest examples the roof is made entirely with a single truss. This is a huge advantage for manufacturers – each truss is the same! And with no roofs or dormers that intersect, there is no need to install metal beam, everything is made of wood.

The design of the house French is distinguished by its more “irregular”. The French pavilion roofs are typically four layers rather than a hut and are often more sloping, so you need more wood, and the roofing job is more expensive.

Intersection of slopes, windows, dormers, porches, corners etc. … increase the level of complexity in the building of a house. If you are considering a number of projects, seeking aesthetic complexity can significantly drive up the final cost.

Home building -the steps for building a house

To set up, develop and finish the construction of a building needs to have the ability to perform different steps and various operating systems ranging from the compilation of administrative and executive to obtain the building permit from the initial construction of the building to the testing, safety and livability of the property.

There are a number of steps needed to make sure the home build goes smoothly:

- Instruct an experienced specialist ( builder, engineer, consultant ) the preparation of the operational program, which is drawn through the systems and arguments governed by the laws current in terms of construction and those specific relevant for the classification of the property to be realized (apartments , hotel, kindergarten, nursing homes, prisons, etc.).

- To elect a person who controls the regular management of the work by the Director of Operations and think of the contractors and the preparation of all papers relevant to the custody of the checks at the bodies of assessment ( Civil Engineering );

- Make comparisons coordinated to the materials used in the characteristics required by the work plan and the peculiarities compared by means of studies and laboratory experiments on prototypes removed during the construction phases and custody of Civil Engineers Report on Manufactures Finite by the Manager of the works work;

- Prepare the dossier in order to achieve the administrative permission to manufacture (or building permit) including compensation expenses for the authorization to be credited to the Municipal door;

- In a few words are cataloged at the end of the paragraph the basic steps to take to set up and finish the whole process in terms of design, both from the administrative point of view, realization is useful for  building a house.

- Conclude the contract with the ‘ construction company (for which you also get basic documents regularly Chamber, contribution and cautionary Institutes in charge);

- To specify the construction company that enjoys the qualities suitable for a proper closure of the works;

- Communicate the change in the category of areas, from building a plot of land (from NCT to NCEU ) encourage the delivery of documentation usability and habitability of the house the administration of the municipality.

- Appoint a Director of Activities (almost always correspond with the designer ), with responsibility for feedback on the company which made it, in accordance with the implementation of projects working in the observance of rules in force relating to the works of construction of technical equipment and protection during working operations, especially following the orders and entries enclosed in the Special Tender annexed in production design;

- Obtain the consent from the authorities delegated to the analysis of the consistency of the prospectus (Municipal Administration Private Sector Housing Services Branch or collective, Civil Engineers, Company USL);